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2022年下半年新疆自考《英语二》模拟题及答案(二)

发布日期:2022-08-05 11:31:44 编辑整理:新疆自考网 【字体: 【学历咨询】
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If winning is everything, British anthropologists(人类学家) have some advice: Wear red.Their survey of four sports at the 2020 Olympic Games shows competitors were more    1   to win their contests    2    they wore red uniforms or red body armor.


"Across a    3   of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning," report Russell A.Hill and Robert A.Barton of the University of Durham in England.Their findings are in Thursday's    4   of the journal Nature.

Red is   5   with emotions.When people get    6   , their faces turn red.It’s also a reason why stop signs are red.


7   , the color’s effect may also subconsciously threaten opponents   8   athletic contests, especially when the athletes are    9   in skill and strength, the researchers suggest.


In their    10   , the anthropologists analyzed the results of four combat sports at the summer games: boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman wrestling and freestyle wrestling.


In those    11   , the athletes were randomly(随机地) assigned   12   protective gear and other sportswear.Athletes    13    red gear won more often in 16 of 21 rounds of competition in all four events.


The effect was the same   14    weight classes, too: 19 of 29 classes had more red winners, and only four rounds had more blue winners.The red    15    might also come into play in team sports.


The anthropologists analyzed the Euro 2020 International Soccer Tournament,    16   which teams wore jerseys of different colors in different matches.They found that five teams      17   more goals and won more often when they wore shirts that were predominantly red, as    18   to blue or white jerseys.


Scientists don't exactly know how wearing red might give athletes a(n)    19   .But the color delivers hidden messages of vigor and   20   .


1.A.possible                B.probable

C.likely                     D.like


2.A.if                           B.as

C.until                      D.unless


3.A.list                        B.range

C.bunch                   D.reach


4.A.issue                     B.report

C.magazine              D.story


5.A.regarded              B.treated

C.come                    D.associated


6.A.angry                   B.pleased

C.depressed            D.sad


7.A.Naturally              B.Fortunately

C.Similarly               D.Strangely


8.A.on                         B.in

C.with                       D.to


9.A.match                    B.different

C.equal                      D.special


10.A.finding                 B.explanation

C.survey                  D.information


11.A.affairs                  B.events

C.incidents             D.matters


12.A.red                      B.blue

C.white                  D.colorful


13.A.pulling on           B.putting on

C.dressing              D.wearing


14.A.because of          B.instead of

C.regardless of       D.as a result of


15.A.effect                  B.affect

C.result                   D.side


16.A.on                       B.for

C.in                          D.about


17.A.completed          B.scored

C.received              D.kept


18.A.fought                B.opposed

C.competed          D.beat


19.A.achievement       B.chance

C.comfort               D.advantage


20.A.danger                B.pleasure

C.surprise               D.disappointment


Roller coasters are fast and exciting. But passing a painful kidney(肾)stone is not. The process is painful and can take a long time. But American researchers have found that a roller coaster ride just might help those suffering from a kidney stone. They say such rides help patients pass the stones with a 70 percent success rate.


David Wartinger led the study. He found that where the person sits on the roller coaster can make a big difference. He said, "In the pilot study, sitting in the last car of the roller coaster showed about a 64 percent success rate, while sitting in the first few cars only had a 16 percent success rate. "


When it comes to passing kidney stones, not all roller coasters are equal. The researchers used 174 kidney stones of different shapes, sizes and weights to see if each model worked on the same ride and on two other roller coasters. They found that Big Thunder Mountain was the only one that worked. The other two roller coasters both failed the test. Wartinger said the other rides were too fast and too violent. The movement forced the stones against the side of the kidney. He said that the ideal roller coaster is rough and quick with some twists and turns.


It also mattered where the stones were located in the kidney. The researchers found that stones located in the upper part of the kidney model were passed 100 percent.


Wartinger thinks roller coaster rides could really be used as an effective measure. He said that a yearly ride on a roller coaster could even prevent stones from developing. "You need to pay attention to the warnings before going on a roller coaster, " he said " If you have a kidney stone, but are otherwise healthy and meet the requirements of the ride, you can absolutely try it. "


He adds that it's definitely a lower cost alternative to other treatments. And riding a roller coaster is definitely more interesting!


31.What might passing kidney stones be like?

A.Uncomfortable.

B.Quick.

C.Enjoyable.

D.Exciting.


32.Roller coaster treatment works better ________.

A.when the person sits in the first car of a roller coaster.

B.when the stone is forced against the side of the kidney.

C.when the stone is located in the lower part of the kidney.

D.when the person rides rough and fast roller coasters with twists and turns.


33.What's probably the advantage of riding a roller coaster?

A.It can prevent the development of kidney stones.

B.It can help anyone besides those with kidney stones.

C.It can prevent danger because of its clear warning.

D.It can apply to everyone with kidney stones effectively.


34.What attitude does Wartinger have towards roller coasters for people having a kidney stone?

A.Concerned.

B.Disapproving.

C.Favorable.

D.Doubtful.


Can staying up late make you fat? A growing body of research has suggested that poor sleep quality is linked to an increased risk of obesity (肥胖症). But a new study found that it’s not the sleep loss that leads to obesity, but rather that overweight can cause poor sleep.The researchers discovered their findings in a very small worm, called C.elegans.


Study co-author David Raizen stressed that while these findings in worms may not translate directly to humans, C.elegans offers a good model for studying humans' sleep. Like all other animals that have nervous systems, they need sleep. But unlike humans, who have complex neural circuitry (神经回路) and are difficult to study, a C.elegans has only 302 nerve cells,one of which scientists know for certain is a sleep regulator.


In humans, people who get fewer than six hours of sleep per night are more likely to be obese. Moreover, starvation in humans, fruit flies, and worms has been shown to affect sleep, indicating that it is regulated, at least in part, by nutrient availability. However, the way in which sleeping and eating work in tandem (协同地) has remained unclear.


The researchers genetically changed C.elegans to “turn off" a nerve cell that controls sleep. These worms could still eat, breathe, and reproduce, but they lost their ability to sleep.With this nerve cell turned off,the researchers saw a severe drop in ATP levels, which is the body's energy currency. “That suggests that sleep is an attempt to conserve energy; it's not actually causing the loss of energy,"Raizen explained.


The researchers knocked out the KIN-29 gene to create sleepless worms, and the mutant (突变的) C.elegans accumulated much fat. They assumed that the KIN-29 mutants did not sleep is because they were unable to release their fat.To test this guess, the researchers again controlled the KIN-29 mutant worms,this time expressing a chemical substance that freed their fat. With that operation,the worms were again able to sleep.


35.What did the new study focus on?

A.The risk of suffering obesity.

B.The way our body consumes energy.

C.The link between obesity and sleep loss.

D.The cause for poor sleep and obesity.


36.What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 3 refer to?

A.Obesity.

B.Nutrition.

C.Starvation.

D.Sleep.


37.Why did the researchers turn off one nerve cell of the C.elegans?

A.To monitor its sleep quality.

B.To regulate the change of ATP.

C.To confirm the function of sleep.

D.To find out factors affecting energy conservation.


38.What might lead to obese people's sleeping problem according to the researchers?

A.That their body fat fails to be freed normally.

B.That their ATP level may be greatly raised.

C.That their brain signals for sleeping go wrong.

D.That their KIN-29 gene is knocked out quickly.


2022年下半年自考英语二模拟题(三)参考答案

1.C

2.A

3.B

4.A

5.D

6.A

7.C

8.B

9.C

10.C

11.B

12.A

13.D

14.C

15.A

16.C

17.B

18.B

19.D

20.A


【分析】

本文是说明文。文章介绍了体育比赛中穿红色衣服获胜的可能性更大。文章通过介绍英国人类学家所做的一些分析,说明了理由。


1.考查形容词和介词词义辨析。句意:如果获胜对您来说很重要,那么英国人类学家建议您: 穿红色的衣服。他们对2004年奥运会上的四个运动项目进行了调查研究,结果表明穿红色运动服或防护外套的运动员在比赛中获胜的可能性更大。A. possible可能的;B. probable很可能的;C. likely很可能的;D. like像。根据上文“If winning is everything, British anthropologists(人类学家) have some advice: Wear red.”可知,英国人类学家建议穿红色的衣服参加比赛,更可能赢得比赛。be likely to do sth.“很可能做某事”是固定短语。故选C。


2.考查连词词义辨析。句意同上。A. if如果;B. as当……时候;C. until直到;D. unless除非。根据上文“If winning is everything, British anthropologists(人类学家) have some advice: Wear red.”可推断,穿红色衣服是条件,用if引导条件状语从句。故选A。


3.考查名词词义辨析。句意:"通过对一系列体育项目的研究,我们发现穿红色衣服通常意味着更高的获胜可能性。"英格兰杜伦大学的拉塞尔·A·希尔和罗伯特·A·巴顿说。A. list名单;B. range范围;C. bunch一束;    D. reach区域。根据下文“we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning”可推断,研究了一系列运动,得出结论。a range of“一系列;一些”是固定短语。故选B。


4.考查名词词义辨析。句意:他们的研究结果发表在本周四出版的《自然》杂志上。A. issue(报刊)期号;B. report报告;C. magazine杂志;D. story故事。根据下文“the journal Nature”可知,此处说的是发现发表在周四的《自然》杂志期刊上。故选A。


5.考查动词词义辨析。句意:红色与情感有联系。A. regarded认为;B. treated对待;C. come来;D. associated联系。根据下文“When people get ___6___, their faces turn red.”可推断,红色与情感有联系,当人们愤怒时,他们的脸会涨得通红。be associated with“与……有关”。故选D。


6.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:当人们愤怒时,他们的脸会涨得通红。A. angry生气的;B. pleased高兴的;C. depressed沮丧的;D. sad伤心的。根据下文“their faces turn red.”和常识可知,人们生气的时候,脸会变红。故选A。


7.考查副词词义辨析。句意:同样,红色也能够在潜意识上对竞争对手产生威慑作用,尤其当竞争双方的技巧和力量都不相上下时。A. Naturally自然地;B. Fortunately幸运地;C. Similarly同样地;D. Strangely奇怪地。根据上文“It’s also a reason why stop signs are red.”可知,红色与情感有关,这也是为什么停车标志被做成红色的一个原因。因此同样的,这种颜色对对手也有潜意识的威慑作用。故选C。


8.考查介词词义辨析。句意:同样,在体育比赛中,红色也能够在潜意识上对竞争对手产生威慑作用,尤其当竞争双方的技巧和力量都不相上下时。A. on在……上面;B. in在……方面;C. with与……一起;D. to朝,向。根据下文“athletic contests”并联系上文,穿红色更容易赢得体育比赛可推断,此处说的是在体育比赛方面。故选B。


9.考查形容词词义辨析。句意同上。A. match比赛;B. different不同的;C. equal平等的;D. special特别的。根据上文的“the color’s effect may also subconsciously threaten opponents”并结合常识可推断,特别是竞争双方的技巧和力量都不相上下时,红色对对手有威慑作用。故选C。


10.考查名词词义辨析。句意:在他们的分析中,人类学家们分析了这次夏季奥运会中四项对抗性运动的比赛结果,它们分别是拳击、跆拳道、古典式摔跤和自由式摔跤。A. finding发现;B. explanation解释;C. survey分析;D. information消息。根据下文“the anthropologists analyzed the results of four combat sports at the summer games: boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman wrestling and freestyle wrestling.”,特别是analyze可推断,此处说的是他们的分析。故选C。


11.考查名词词义辨析。句意:在那些赛事中,红色的护具和运动装束被随机分配给运动员们。A. affairs事务,私事;B. events体育赛事;C. incidents事件,事变;D. matters问题。根据下文“the athletes”可知,此处说的是体育赛事。故选B。


12.考查形容词词义辨析。句意同上。A. red红色的;B. blue蓝色的;C. white白色的;D. colorful彩色的。根据下文“red gear”可知,运动员带着红色的护具。故选A。


13.考查动词和短语辨析。句意:在这四项赛事中,穿红色防护外套的运动员在21轮比赛中共获得16次胜利。A. pulling on对……有吸引力;B. putting on上演;C. dressing穿;D. wearing穿戴。根据上文“the athletes were randomly(随机地) assigned___12___protective gear and other sportswear.”可知,运动员被随机分给红色的防护服,穿戴着红色护具的运动员在20轮比赛中获胜16轮。dress表示“穿戴”不能直接跟表示“衣服”的名词作宾语,需要加介词in。故选D。


14.考查固定短语辨析。句意:即使在不同重量级的比赛中,红色产生的效果也是相同的。A. because of因为;B. instead of代替;C. regardless of不管;D. as a result of由于……的结果。根据下文“19 of 29 classes had more red winners, and only four rounds had more blue winners.”可推断,不管什么重量级,效果都是一样的。故选C。


15.考查名词词义辨析。句意:红色影响还可能会在集体运动项目中发挥效力。A. effect影响,效果;B. affect影响;C. result结果;D. side方面,旁边。根据上文“The effect”和下文“come into play in team sports”可推断,此处说的是红色的影响,作主语用名词,affect是动词。故选A。


16.考查介词词义辨析。句意:人类学家们还对2004年欧洲国际足球锦标赛做了分析,就各支球队在不同的比赛中所穿的不同颜色的队服进行比较。A. on在……上面;B. for为了;C. in在……里面;D. about关于。分析句子可知,which引导定语从句,指代the Euro 2020 International Soccer Tournament,根据句意,此处说的是在2004年欧洲国际足球锦标赛,用介词in。故选C。


17.考查动词词义辨析。句意:他们发现有五支球队在穿红色基调的球衣与穿蓝色或白色球衣的对手抗衡时,他们的进球和获胜次数都增加了。A. completed完成;B. scored得分;C. received收到;D. kept保持。根据下文“more goals and won more often”可知,此处说的是得分更多。故选B。


18.考查动词词义辨析。句意同上。A. fought斗争;B. opposed反对;C. competed竞争;D. beat打败。根据上文“more goals and won more often when they wore shirts that were predominantly red”与下文“blue or white jerseys”可推断,此处是穿红色基调的球衣的团队与穿蓝色或白色球衣的对抗。as opposed to“与……对抗”是固定短语。故选B。


19.考查名词词义辨析。句意:科学家们并不很确定穿红色衣服是如何使运动员获得优势的。但这种颜色暗含着活力和危险的信号。A. achievement成就;B. chance机会;C. comfort舒适;D. advantage优势。根据上文“They found that five teams____17____more goals and won more often when they wore shirts that were predominantly red, as ___18___ to blue or white jerseys.”以及上文内容可知,此处说的是穿红色衣服给予运动员的优势。故选D。


20.考查名词词义辨析。句意:但这种颜色暗含着活力和危险的信号。A. danger危险;B. pleasure快乐;C. surprise惊奇;D. disappointment失望。根据上文“the color’s effect may also subconsciously threaten opponents”可推断,红色暗含着活力和危险的信号。故选A。

31.A

32.D

33.A

34.C


【分析】

本文是一篇说明文。文章通过实验和专家观点表明,乘坐过山车可以帮助肾结石病人排石,但和过山车种类、病人乘坐时的位置以及结石的位置有关。


31.推理判断题。根据第一段中“Roller coasters are fast and exciting. But passing a painful kidney(肾)stone is not. The process is painful and can take a long time.(过山车又快又刺激。但排出痛苦的肾结石却不是这样。这个过程很痛苦,可能需要很长时间)”可知,排出肾结石会是不舒服的。故选A。


32.细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句“He said that the ideal roller coaster is rough and quick with some twists and turns.(他说,理想的过山车是颠簸而快速,有一些曲折)”可知,当人们乘坐颠簸而又快速的过山车时,过山车治疗(肾结石的)效果更好。故选D。


33.细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中“He said that a yearly ride on a roller coaster could even prevent stones from developing.(他说,每年坐一次过山车甚至可以防止结石的形成)”可知,坐过山车可能可以防止肾结石的发展。故选A。


34.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段第一句“Wartinger thinks roller coaster rides could really be used as an effective measure. He said that a yearly ride on a roller coaster could even prevent stones from developing.(Wartinger认为,坐过山车确实可以作为一种有效的措施。他说,每年坐一次过山车甚至可以防止结石的形成)”可知,Wartinger对患有肾结石的人坐过山车持赞成的态度。故选C。


35.C


36.D


37.C


38.A


【分析】

本文是说明文。熬夜会使你发胖吗?越来越多的研究表明,睡眠质量差与肥胖风险增加有关。但一项新的研究发现,并不是睡眠不足导致肥胖,而是超重导致睡眠质量差。研究人员在一种叫做秀丽隐杆线虫的非常小的蠕虫中发现了这些发现。


35.细节理解题。根据第一段“But a new study found that it’s not the sleep loss that leads to obesity, but rather that overweight can cause poor sleep. (但一项新的研究发现,并不是睡眠不足导致肥胖,而是超重导致睡眠质量差)”可知,新研究关注的是肥胖和睡眠缺失的关系。故选C。


36.词句猜测题。根据第三段“In humans, people who get fewer than six hours of sleep per night are more likely to be obese. Moreover, starvation in humans, fruit flies, and worms has been shown to affect sleep, indicating that it is regulated, at least in part, by nutrient availability. (对于人类来说,每晚睡眠少于6小时的人更有可能肥胖。此外,人类、果蝇和蠕虫的饥饿已被证明会影响睡眠,这表明它至少在一定程度上受营养供应的调节)”可知,饥饿造成的营养供应不足会影响睡眠,所以it指代的是前面的睡眠。故选D。


37.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“The researchers genetically changed C.elegans to “tum off" a nerve cell that controls sleep. These worms could still eat, breathe, and reproduce, but they lost their ability to sleep.With this nerve cell turned off,the researchers saw a severe drop in ATP levels, which is the body's energy currency. “That suggests that sleep is an attempt to conserve energy; it's not actually causing the loss of energy,” Raizen explained. (研究人员从基因上改变了秀丽隐杆线虫,使其“关闭”控制睡眠的神经细胞。这些蠕虫仍然可以进食、呼吸和繁殖,但它们失去了睡眠的能力。随着神经细胞的关闭,研究人员发现ATP水平严重下降,ATP是人体的能量货币。


“这表明睡眠是储存能量的一种尝试;它实际上并没有造成能量的损失,”Raizen解释道)”可知,研究人员“关闭”秀丽隐杆线虫的神经细胞为了确定睡眠的功能。故选C。


38.细节理解题。根据第一段“But a new study found that it’s not the sleep loss that leads to obesity, but rather that overweight can cause poor sleep. (但一项新的研究发现,并不是睡眠不足导致肥胖,而是超重导致睡眠质量差)”可知,根据研究人员的说法,人们的身体超重,也就是脂肪无法正常释放这会导致肥胖者的睡眠问题。故选A。


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